Book Definition: Literally "new Freudians"; refers to theorists who broke with Freud but whose theories retain a psychodynamic aspect, especially a focus on motivation as the source of energy for the personality.


Freud was a controversial figure (an image he liked to promote). While he attracted many followers, he brooked no criticism (didn't tolerate criticism) of his basic principles. Eventually, several of his strongly-willed disciples broke away to establish their own psychoanalytic theories of personality, mental disorder, and treatment. They often disagreed about specific motives such as "Are our motives primarily sexual or social?" or "Conscious or Unconscious?"


  • Carl Jung
  • Erik Erikson
  • Karen Horney
  • Alfred Adler
  • A theorist who still believes in the unconscious, but has different opinions on other things, such as archetypes or the the neurotic needs.
  • Believes some of Freud's views, but branched off and created their own theories.
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