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The Science of Psychology
The Biological Perspective
Sensation & Perception
Motivation and Emotion
Testing and Intelligence
Treatment of Psychological Disorders
2013-14 Example Starters
When I was a kid...
In the future...
At a concert...
In a world...
If you were raised by wolves...
At a restaurant...
Basically I got in trouble because...
One does not simply...
If you were alone in the world...
When the zombies come...
When you're driving...
When I have kids...
We could test this out...
If we didn't have this...
In a rap battle...
I could use my knowledge of this to predict that...
While studying for my test...
_______ is related to _______ because...
When you are playing call of duty...
Biology, natural selection, and adaptation
Heightened human abilities
The Ninja and His Nemesis
Nature v Nurture
Gina and Tina: Separated Twins
: The removal of an unpleasant or aversive stimulus, contingent on a particular behavior.
This is removing something irritating or painful (the negative stimulus) in order to reinforce a desired behavior.
Remember to think
adding (+) stimulus
subtracting (-) stimulus
Examples of Negative Reinforcement
You take Advil to relieve the pain of a headache.
You put on headphones to remove the sound of your dogs barking.
Your mom keeps nagging you about studying, so you study to make her voice go away.
It's raining outside, you take an umbrella to avoid getting wet. The negative reinforcement would be avoiding an unpleasant stimulus (getting wet).
You put on a jacket to avoid being cold (the jacket removes the cold feeling).
Your mother keeps telling you to do your chores. She keeps annoying you and nagging you and you can't take it any longer. The negative reinforcement would be the lack of her yelling because you do your chores.
You are laying in bed, sleeping, and your alarm goes off, so you wake up and hit the button to get it to stop.
Your girlfriend will not stop nagging you about how her friend's boyfriend took her to the movies, so you find enough money to take her to the movies and finally get her to stop.
When you are in the car, you buckle your seat belt or turn off your turn signal to remove the annoying warning sounds.
Punishment vs Negative Reinforcement
is meant to
a certain behavior because it adds an unpleasant stimulus to annoy/hurt the organism into not doing that behavior anymore.
Conversely, negative reinforcement is meant to
a specific behavior because it takes away an unpleasant stimulus to reward performing the behavior.
*BOTH HAVE DIFFERENT EFFECTS ON BEHAVIOR*
Negative reinforcement aims to change the
(behavior) of the organism.
is the form of conditioning that uses adding or removing stimuli, like negative reinforcement.
is the annoying stimulus that is removed in order to promote the behavior.
If the negative stimulus is applied enough times, due to the
law of effect
, the organism will have the desirable results (behavior) stamped into them.
has the opposite effect on people than negative reinforcement does.
is the other form of reinforcement that is used to increase a behavior.
can be used to negatively reinforce an animal into changing their behavior.
was the founder of operant conditioning and invented the idea of negative reinforcement.
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