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The Science of Psychology
The Biological Perspective
Sensation & Perception
Motivation and Emotion
Testing and Intelligence
Treatment of Psychological Disorders
2013-14 Example Starters
When I was a kid...
In the future...
At a concert...
In a world...
If you were raised by wolves...
At a restaurant...
Basically I got in trouble because...
One does not simply...
If you were alone in the world...
When the zombies come...
When you're driving...
When I have kids...
We could test this out...
If we didn't have this...
In a rap battle...
I could use my knowledge of this to predict that...
While studying for my test...
_______ is related to _______ because...
When you are playing call of duty...
Biology, natural selection, and adaptation
Heightened human abilities
The Ninja and His Nemesis
Nature v Nurture
Gina and Tina: Separated Twins
An operant technique applied to groups, such as classrooms or mental hospital wards, involving the distribution of "tokens" or other indicators of reinforcement on desired behaviors. The tokens can later be exchanged for privileges, food, or other reinforcers.
Behavior is rewarded with secondary reinforcers that can be turned in for something like food or privileges.
A token economy is a system of behavior modification based on the principles of
. It is often used by people who practice applied behavior analysis (ABA).
A token economy rewards good deeds with items that can be used to trade for a desirable item later on.
A token economy is a therapeutic system where individuals are given a fake form of currency that can be exchanged for "Good things in life" as a reward for good behaviors that are trying to be taught to the patient.
Examples of a Token Economy
PRIDE Bucks can be used to "purchase" items from the school store. Teachers reward students for good behaviors with the PRIDE Bucks and students' positive behaviors are reinforced because of the conditioned value. PRIDE bucks can also be used in LRQ bidding wars.
Prisoners are sometimes rewarded for good behavior and can redeem their tokens for things like cigarettes, stamps, or magazines.
Many consider the dollar, and the entire capitalist system, to be representative of a token economy. The dollar supports behaviors of hard work, bright ideas, and motivates people into action. Without the ability to purchase items, the dollar would just be a meaningless piece of paper. This means that it is a
, which is part of the idea of a token economy.
When a chimpanzee performs a desired behavior, he gets plastic tokens which he can exchange for raisins.
A teacher rewarding a student with candy for answering a question correctly is reinforcing a positive behavior.
4. Atthowe Jr, J. M., & Krasner, L. (1968). Preliminary report on the application of contingent reinforcement procedures (token economy) on a" chronic" psychiatric ward.
Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Psych Ward Experiment
An experiment was done to help improve the behavior of patients in a psych ward. The method was to reward each patient with a token for positive actions, actions like interacting with others or demonstrating responsible behavior. In exchange for the tokens, the patients were able to gain passes, have movie privileges, and/ or receive a nice bed space. Because they were rewarded for positive behaviors, the patients improved their social skills and acted more responsibly.
Atthowe Jr, J. M., & Krasner, L. (1968). Preliminary report on the application of contingent reinforcement procedures (token economy) on a" chronic" psychiatric ward. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 73(1), 37.
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