Chapter 3: Biopsychology

  • If we didn't have acetyl choline in our body (which is the nerve responsible for learning and memory) we would not be able to retain any information, and we would forget nearly everything.
  • If we didn't have motor neurons, your brain would not understand how to move your body to perform specific functions, but wouldn't actually be able to do it because these neurons are responsible for voluntary movement of the muscles.
  • If we didn't have an Autonomic Nervous System, you would suffocate when you fall asleep. It automatically controls the operation of organs like your lungs.
  • If we didn't have an endocrine system, then we wouldn't have the flight-or-fight response or hormones to regulate our body, and we wouldn't last very long in life.
  • If we didn't have cerebral dominance people who have a physical injury to one specific side of the brain would not be affected differently by which side was injured. Instead, we do have cerebral dominance, so a left hemisphere injury will likely harm the ability to process an control interna and external speech.
  • If we didn't have a hypothalamus how would we know when we were hungry, or cold, or hot?
  • If we didn't have a corpus callosum, the two hemispheres of our brains wouldn't be able to communicate or exchange information with one another.
  • If we didn't have cerebral dominance and our brain was injured at some point we would only lose the actions that the hemisphere controlled.
  • If we didn't have an amygdala, we wouldn't be able to remember anything or have any emotions towards things going on around us.
  • If we didn't have a thalamus, we would be unable to feel sensations.
  • If we didn't have neurons, we wouldn't have the ability to make any actions whatsoever. Also, we would have no feeling due to the lack receptors.
  • If we didn't have temporal lobes , we wouldn't be able to speak or hear.
  • If we didn't have sensory neurons, your brain would not be able to send out messages to get your body to function.
  • If we didn't have dopamine, we would be depressed all the time.
  • If we didn't have a cerebellum, then we wouldn't be able to control our balance or coordination.
  • If we didn't have a hippocampus, we wouldn't remember anything long-term.
  • If we didn't have an amygdala, we wouldn't be able to express emotions or moods.
  • If we didn't have a unique phenotype everybody would look the same.
  • If we didn't have the knowledge that Charles Darwin pioneered for us, we would never understand what natural selection is and how it works in Evolutionary Biology.
  • If we didn't have the cerebral cortex, we wouldn't think about the effects of doing something, and we would simply act on impulse.
  • If we didn't have interneurons, then it would be extremely difficult to translate direct sensory information into controlled movement.
  • If we didn't have a reticular formation, then we wouldn't be able to stay alert in AP Psychology class.
  • If we didn't have a single synapse in our brain, then neurotransmitters would not be able to transfer information in a controlled way.
  • If we didn't have occipital lobes, then it would be impossible to use the information from the optic tract and see the world.
  • If we didn't have parietal lobes, then we wouldn't be able to touch a table and recognize the feeling of the surface.
  • If we didn't have a medulla, then we wouldn't have to constantly think about breathing or else we would suffocate.
  • If we didn't have PET scanning or MRI scanning, then we wouldn't be able to confirm issues that are occurring in our body, like a broken bone or stroke.
  • If we didn't have an fMRI much of our knowledge about the brain would still be unknown and we would not be able to tell which part of the brain is not functioning as well as the others
  • If we didn't have a frontal lobe, would we still be able to have an abstract thought process or some movements?
  • If we didn't have a hippocampus, we wouldn't be able to remember anything that we've learned.
  • If we didn't have the corpus callosum, then the left and right hemispheres would not be able to interact, and your bodies functions would be limited.
  • If we didn't have unique genotypes our chemical make up would all be the same which will cause our phenotypes to be similar.
  • if we didnt have motor neurons then our synapse wouldnt function right.
  • if we didnt have frontal lobes we wouldn't hear or be alert to anything.

Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception

  • if we didn't have Just Noticeable Difference we wouldn't hear anything that has changed because our threshold can't catch it.
  • If we didn't have sensory adaptation, then when if we jumped into the pool, the water would feel cold the entire time; we wouldn't be able to get used to it. Brr!
  • If we didn't have a resting potential, then our neurons would never get a break, and our brain would be painfully inefficient.
  • If we didn't have agonists then many different kinds of anti-depressant drugs would not work, since many of those drugs are intended to mimic the effects of certain neurotransmitters.
  • If we didn't have sensory adaptation we wouldn't be able to use our sense of touch to adapt to the press of furniture against our body.
  • If we didn't have transduction, we wouldn't be able to transfer physical stimulation into neural messages, so the brain would not be able to perceive the 'outside' world.
  • If we didn't have the Gate-Control Theory, would we sense pain from every little bump? Without the gate blocking pain signals, would there even be a difference in the pain from a paper cut and the pain from being punched in the arm?
  • If we didn't have photoreceptors (cones and rods), then we wouldn't be able to see in dim light or brightness. Photoreceptors are very important to vision, because they transduce physical stimulus into neural signals for our brain (visual cortex, occipital lobe) to analyze and interpret.
  • If we didn't have sensation and perceptionin general, then we wouldn't be able to see, hear, taste, smell, or touch the things around us, and we wouldn't feel pain. What an interesting place the world would be...
  • If we didn't have a foveawe would not be able to see the features of a face.
  • If we didn't have rods we would not be able to detect low intensities of light at night.
  • If we didn't have cones, we would not be able to see colors or match our outfits.
  • If we didn't have an absolute threshold, then we would not be able to detect the presence or absence of stimulation, whether it be sound, taste, smell, touch, etc.
  • If we didn't have a difference threshold, then we wouldn't be able to figure out subtle changes in sound, or taste, or any other kind of stimuli.
  • If we didn't have Weber's law, then if someone were singing very loudly in the shower and they suddenly sang a tiny bit quieter, we would be able to notice that change easily. But since we do have Weber's law, it takes a bigger difference with more stimuli to notice a change.
  • If we didn't have pheromones, then some animals would never reproduce because they wouldn't be able to detect the chemical signals from the opposite sex.
  • If we didn't have the binding problem, we wouldn't ever be able to piece together a full picture of our surroundings because the brain wouldn't put together all the sensory operations into a single perception.
  • If we didn't have a terminal threshold, we would not feel pain from intense sounds.
  • If we didn't have feature detectorswe would not be able to look at a certain color like pink and detect that it is pink.
  • If we didn't have the binding problem; we would be able to understand how the brain turns minor sensory details into an entire perception-- such as a person, or any sort of 'complete' image.
  • If we didn't have olfaction, we would not be able to appreciate soap because soap was not meant to look pretty, but to help us smell more appealing to our peers.
  • if we didn't have feature detectorswe couldn't remember someone by their features of their face.
  • If we didn't have perceptual constancy, everything would be a new experience to us. Nothing would be as it seems.
  • If we didn't have shape constancy, we would never know what a shape is once the angle of the object has changed.
  • If we didn't have monocular cues, we wouldn't be able to determine things like shape, size; texture, overlap, shading, height, and clarity with one eye.
  • If we didn't have the visual cliff then doing everyday tasks would be become impossible; such as walking to get the mail. Without a three-dimensional world, you might not ever find that mailbox.
  • If we didn't have our Vestibular Sense, balance would be virtually impossible. We would also be unable to tell which way is up/down, nor would we be able to tell how our body is moving in space.
  • If we didn't have the Gate-Control theory, everything would be much more painful because we would not have the 'gate' to inhibit incoming pain signals.
  • If we didn't have the cochlea then hearing might be impossible, because the sound waves wouldn't be able to be transduced into neural messages so our brains knows what we are hearing..
  • If we didn't have closurethan our mind wouldn't be able to automatically fill in missing parts of certain things such as shapes or missing letters in words.
  • If we didn't have dopaminewe wouldn't want to do many things because they wouldn't make us happy or give us any emotional reward.
  • if we didnt have rods then our vision would funtion right.
  • If we didn't have kinesthetic sensewhen we would reach for a glass of water we would knock it over.
  • If we didnt have natural selection, we would never have evolved and either still be cavemen or extinct.
  • If we didn't have Gustation, we would never be able to fully appreciate good cooking.
  • If we didn't have transduction, we wouldn't be able to see as the light waves would never change to neural impulses.
  • If we didn't have sensory adaptation, a swimmer would never get warm while swimming in cold water.
  • If we didn't have both eyes, our Binocular cueswould be messed up, and our depth perception would be off.
  • If we did not have the Gustation sense people would have no favorite type of food because nothing would have taste.
  • If we didn't have a terminal threshold, then we would never know when a stimulation is too high above our absolute thresholdand starts to cause us pain.
  • If we didn't have perceptual set, we would not be able to predict what will happen based off of context clues.
  • If we didn't have kinesthetic sense we would not have a very controlled sense of movement.
  • If we didn't have ambiguous figures then everyone would look at the necker cube the same.

Chapter 5: States of Consciousness

  • If we didn't have the nonconscious process, then while we walk we would hold our breath because we wouldn't be able to do both simultaneously.
  • If we didn't have mental rotation, then we could not tell that a pen is still a pen when viewing it from a different angle.
  • If we didn't have meditation, it would be harder to relax.
  • If we didn't have sensation, then we wouldn't be able to recall preconscious memories.
  • If we didn't have sleep paralysis, we would act out our dreams as we would dream them. This could actually be pretty embarrassing and dangerous.
  • If we didn't have tolerancethan we wouldn't have to use more and more of the drug every time we used it to get the same effectiveness. People would be less likely to become addicted to drugs.
  • If we didn't have physical dependence, out bodies would not adjust to need a drug after having used it for a while. For example, a cigarette smoker wouldn't have to smoke daily in order to function without experiencing withdrawal.
  • If we didn't have daydreaming, we would not have as many of the creative and inspired ideas that lead to interesting books, movies, and songs.
  • If we didn't have REM sleep we wouldn't be able to have dreams.
  • If we didn't have latent contentin dreams we would have weird, pointless dreams without symbolic meanings.
  • If we didn't have psychological dependence, people would not feel the need to have a drug, outside of physical dependence.
  • if we didnt have sensation we wouldnt be able to recall daydreams.
  • If we didn't have circadian rhythms, then we wouldn't have regulated sleep to give our brain a rest and to give our body a rest. We would be physically and mentally weak.
  • If we didn't have unconsciousprocesses our lives would be more complicated because we would have to process simple tasks such as breathing and walking.
  • If we didn't have sleep paralysis, than we might sleep walk and do harmful and dangerous things sleeping.
  • If we didn't have preconsciousthen we couldn't recall any memory of anything.
  • If we didn't have daydreaming, then we wouldn't think about our goals and desires as much as we do (on an average day).
  • If we didn't have insomnia then we would be able to fall asleep more easily and stay asleep throughout the night.
  • If we didn't have narcolepsy then there would be less embarrasing sleeping incidents to write stories and movies about.

Chapter 6: Learning

  • If we did not have taste-aversion learningwe would be much more open to many food choices as adults, but we would not have survived as well in early human history because we would not have learned to avoid old, rotting meat or poisonous foods.
  • If we didn't have taste-aversion learning then we would constantly eat food that we dont like and wouldnt reconize that we dont like it.
  • If we didn't have punishment then some kids would continue the same behavior that got them in trouble.
  • If we didn't have extinctionthen a teacher could stop checking homework half way through the year, but the absence of reinforcement would not effect the students.
  • If we didn't have Law of Effect then people could not use a reinforcerto teach something because it would have no meaning.
  • If we didn't have negative punishment (omission training)we could disobay our parents and not get our phones taken away.
  • If we didn't have a cognitive map, then it would have been difficult for us to go to the mall because we wouldn't have any idea of where the stores we want to go to are.
  • If we didn't have observational learning/social learning we wouldn't be able to catch on to new fashions or slang terms.
  • If we didn't have insight learning, we would not be able to solve problems using our previous knowledge and experience.
  • If we didn't have variable ratio schedulesthen slot machines wouldn't be successful because they wouldn't reward at random anymore.
  • If we didn't have operant conditioning, then all of our behaviors would be involuntary and nothing would be rewarded.
  • If we didnt have Positive reinforcement then it would be harder to teach our kids to continue doing positive things.
  • If we didn't have positive punishment then people would not feel physical/mental anguish in response to their wrongdoings.
  • If we didn't have classical conditioning then training dogs or other animals would be almost impossible.
  • If we didn't have the primary reinforcers then ambition would be nonexistent.
  • If we didn't have habituation then we might become miserable due to certain stilmulations.
  • If we didn't have cognitive maps, it would be extremely difficult to walk around your house in the dark.
  • If we didn't have Insight learning, learning would be very difficult because we couldn't connect problems together.
  • If we didn't have cognitive maps, it would be extremely hard to drive anywhere without a GPS since you wouldn't know the area well.

Chapter 7: Cognition

  • If we didn't have memory, then we wouldn't be able to remember anything - experiences, friend's faces, test material, and so on. Once you did something, you would forget it right after. It's much better to have proper memory that has the three basic steps of encoding, storage, and retrieval.
  • If we didn't have Infantile amnesia, we would be able to remember the dreadful moment we left our mother's womb.
  • If we didn't have encoding, we wouldn't be able to modify information to fit the preferred format of the memory system.
  • If we didn't have time-gap phenomenon we would always be focusing on everything.
  • If we didn't have Natural concepts, we would not be able to understand objects and events from past experiences and observations. For example, we wouldn't be able to dress ourselves each day without someone telling us how to. We would not be able to understand things we had done or seen before and everything would be a new experience.
  • If we didn't have long term memory we wouldn't be able to remember things of importance after a long period of time.
  • if we didn't have flashbulb memory, we would never be able to have memories to some of the most important moments in our lives.
  • If we didn't have a hippocampus or amygdala, we wouldn't be able to store any new episodic memories. Everything we did a minute ago, we would forget. We would also suffer from anterogrode amnesia (like H.M.)
  • If we didn't have explicit memory we would not be able to recall the words we memorized to get the correct answers on a vocab test.
  • If we didn't have the TOT phenomenon, we wouldn't have the inability to recall a word that is "on the tip of our tongue", while knowing that is in memory.
  • If we didn't have retrieval cues we wouldn't be able to bring a memory to consciousness or into behavior when a stimulus is presented.
  • If we didn't have absent-mindedness we would always be able to remember anniversaries and where we last placed things.
  • If we didn't have chunking, it would be much harder to memorize things; such as phone numbers and social security numbers.
  • If we didn't have the seven sins of memory, would we remember everything without distortions and have a perfect memory?
  • If we didn't have bias, we would all think the same way and not have any personal opinions.
  • If we didn't have mnemonics, it would be difficult to remember everything and keep it in your memory.
  • If we didn't have long term memory, we wouldn't be able to remember anything from our childhood.
  • If we didn't have priming, it would prove to be a significant amount more difficult to manipulate people.
  • If we didn't have the encoding specifity principle we would have a lot of confusion learning Psychology because we would be overwhelmed with details before understanding the context from which they came.
  • If we didn't have transience, our long term memories would not fade away over time.
  • If we didn't have blocking, we wouldn't have memories that interfere with us retrieving the desired information.
  • If we didn't have misattribution, we would recall memories with all the right details/facts.
  • If we didn't have Maintenance rehearsal, we would constantly be losing previous memories.
  • If we didn't have the serial position effect, it would be just as easy to remember the middle chunk of a list as the beginning and end chunks of a list.
  • If we didn't have retrieving there would be no point of storing memories.
  • If we didn't have Persistence, we would never have annoying songs stuck in our heads or bad memories.
  • If we didn't have transience, we would be able to remember a lot more events from our childhood.
  • If we didn't have retrieval, we wouldn't be able to remember what happened the day before.
  • If we didn't have working memory, our brains wouldn't be able to multitask and think of more than one thing at once.
  • If we didn't the misinformation effect respond to suggestibility we wouldn't claim to remember things that we don't actually remember.
  • If we didn't have storage, we would be encoding information and it would not get stored, so then when it was time for retrieval, we would try to remember something that wasn't there.
  • If we didn't have Artificial concepts, it would be difficult to do a math problem because we wouldn't have specific formulas.
  • If we didn't have misattrabution, we would be correct about everything all the time, we would never make mistakes.
  • If we didn't have bias, we would agree with people more and not think we were always right.
  • If we didn't have Persistence, than we could easily put out unwanted memories from our mind.
  • If we didn't have a language acquisition device (LAD) when we were kids, then we probably wouldn't have the grammar and vocabulary we do now, and would learn how to speak a new language a lot slower.
  • if we didn't have sensory memory, then we would never learn new memories.
  • if we didn't have procedural memory, then we wouldn't remember how to ride a bike or even throw a football.
  • if we didn't have retrieval cues then we couldn't remember information right away or even at all. normally we have cues that make us remember things.
  • if we didn't have levels of processing, then we couldn't make anything we learn meaning and that means anything we learn we really wouldn't understand.
  • if we didn't have encoding specificity principle then it would make it harder for anyone to retrieve information.
  • If we didn't have suggestibility, then there would be no forced false confessions from suspects interrogated by cops.
  • If we didn't have proactive interference, we would not go looking in a wrong drawer for silverware in a brand new house.
  • If we didn't have natural concepts, we wouldn't be able to recognize our mothers face or what a bird was.
  • If we didn't have artificial concepts, we wouldn't know what a rectangle was or have the exact definition of a bird.
  • If we didn't have the serial position effect we could remember everything that happened in a class not just the beginning and end parts of the class.
  • If we didn't have morphemes, humans wouldn't be able to communicate.
  • If we didn't have overregularization, then we would be misusing the rules of grammar. For example, if you say "we walked down the street" that is correct, but if you say "he hitted the ball" that is wrong because you applied a suffix where it was not needed.
  • If we didn't have script then we wouldn't be able to predict sequences of events and actions in particular settings.
  • If we didn't have creativity, we would not be able to come up with fresh, new solutions to problems if the old ones stopped working. If we were confronted with the problem of getting to class and our usual hallway path was jammed, we wouldn't be able to devise a new path without creativity.
  • If we didn't have confirmation bias, would we just believe everything we hear and see?
  • If we didn't have problem solving abilities, we would be very primitive and rash in our decision making.
  • If we didn't have proactive interference, we would always remember the new memory over the old memory.
  • If we didn't have algorithms, we wouldn't be able to have guaranteed outcomes, if they are used correctly. (formulas and procedures)
  • If we didn't have heuristics, it would take much longer to solve complex puzzles because we wouldn't know basic rules to use as shortcuts.
  • If we didn't have transcience, we wouldn't forget to read pages out of a book that was assigned for homework, and we also wouldn't forget the information we read the night before the times we DID remember to read.
  • If we didn't have representative bias, there would be no stereotyping, and the world might be a better place.
  • If we didn't have Functional fixedness, using common objects for new purposes would be a lot easier.
  • If we didn't have distributed learning, we would not have daily reading assignments and instead we would just cram the day before for a unit test.
  • If we didn't have anchoring bias, people on youtube wouldn't pester Mr. Wray for his misspelled words and instead see that the song as a whole can help someone remember all of the basis.
  • If we didn't have mental sets we would not be able to take info from a previous problem and apply it to a new problem.
  • If we didn't have the computer metaphor, we wouldn't have the idea that hour brain is an information processing organ that in some ways is like a computer.
  • If we didn't have concept hierarchies, we wouldn't be able to categorize things from most specific to more general things. Such as the concept "mammal" includes "whale" and "panda".
  • If we didn't have divergent thinking, our problems could only be solved one way.
  • If we didn't have algorithms, it'd be impossible to solve a Rubik's cube.
  • If we didn't have hindsight bias, we would realize that we actually didn't know it was going to happen.
  • If we didn't have persistence people wouldn't be haunted by childhood memories because they would be able to forget them.
  • If we didn't have anterograde amnesia then Ten Second Tom from "50 First Dates" would be able to encode new information.
  • If we didn't have long term memory, our storage capacity wouldn't be unlimited and we wouldn't be able to memorize as many important things for longer periods of time.
  • If we didn't have the Self Reference Effect, than we wouldn't remember things as well, since we wouldn't find a way to relate them to ourselves.
  • If we didn't have flashbulb memory, we would never remember those meaningful memories.
  • If we didn't have consolidation, we would only remember things for a short term.
  • If we didn't have explicit memory, we would never remember anything when we try to learn something.
  • If we didn't have blocking, nothing would ever be forgotten.
  • If we didn't have infantile amnesia we would remember everything from when we were a child which would be terrible because i don't want to remember me pooping my pants.
  • If we didn't have algorithms, there would be no sure fire way to solve equations or problems, only sometimes accurate shortcuts.

Chapter 8: Emotion and Motivation

  • If we didn't have the General adaption syndrome, then our body would react inconsistently to different stressors, making life a minefield of physical reactions that could not be accurately predicted.
  • If we didn't have posttraumatic stress disorder, then soldiers would probably not feel a delayed stress reaction after a tour into combat, and would not experience some of the intense symptoms of PTSD, like diminished hedonic capacity, feelings of alienation, or memory difficulties.
  • If we didn't have opponent-process theory, our emotions could get very mixed up and possibly confuse us greatly.
  • If we didn't have the Limbic System, we would not have control of our behaviors when we are attacking, defending, or retreating.
  • If we didn't have the autonomic nervous system, our heart wouldn't race when we were angry.
  • If we didn't have emotional intelligence, we wouldn't be able to understand or control our emotions. There would be a lot more crying, screaming, and fighting, as if everyone were a young child.
  • If we didn't have reticular function, then the thalamus and the amygala wouldn't be able to observe incoming conscious.
  • If we didn't have the amygdala, we wouldn't feel fear or aggression and would not have to worry about control over them.
  • If we didn't have Extrinsic motivation, then people wouldn't do favors or jobs for just the money, they would be more likely to do something just for the sake of doing it.
  • If we didn't have display rules, your emotions would be expressed every time you got emotional. Unlike with display rules we tend to cover up how we feel.
  • If we didn't have sensations seekers, everyone would all have the same level of stimulation for emotions to be present.
  • If we didn't have deception cues then nobody would ever know if someone was being honest or not
  • If we didn't have motivation then we would all just sit around and do nothing because we wouldn't want to do anything with our lives, and we would waste away because we wouldn't have any motivation to eat.
  • If we didn't have Intrinsic motivation then no one would do activities for fun or for personal goals, and we would very rarely be able to make our decisions.
  • If we didn't have emotions, we'd have no ability or desire to communicate with other members of the human race. We'd have no signals for pleasure, negativity, no drive to reproduce or experiment scientifically.
  • If we didn't have need for achievement then we wouldn't have any motivation to do anything or to achieve any goals that we make for ourselves.
  • If we didn't have individualism then we would ever have a high value on individual achievement for success.
  • If we didn't have osmotic thirst then we would never need to drink water because we would never lose fluids out of our body.
  • If we didn't have avoidance-avoidance conflict then we would never have to do things we didn't like to do or have to choose between things we didn't like such as taking out the trash or doing the dishes.
  • If we didn't have set point, then we wouldn't be able to maintain homeostasis and would all become obese from eating too much.
  • If we didn't have sexual scripts we wouldn't really know what exactly to do during sexual situations.
  • If we didn't have multiple approach-avoidance conflict we wouldn't be able to weigh pros and cons of several options like which college you want to go to.
  • If we didn't have sexual orientation we would like whoever without having labels on it.
  • If we didn't have the stress response, we would be unable to deal with the stressors in everyday life, and just become depressed and overwhelmed.
  • If we didn't have the flight-or-fight response than we would be completely clueless on what to do when a situation interpreted as threatening occurs.
  • If we didn't have Homeostasis then our body wouldn't be in complete balance. When you get hot and start sweating.
  • If we didn't have learned helplessness then society would always be trying to perfect themselves by trying something over and over until it is good enough.
  • If we didn't have stress, then we wouldn't be able to deal with threatening situations in the right way.
  • If we didn't have traumatic stressor, then when a loved one died we wouldn't have any feeling towards it.
  • If we didn't have lateralization of emotion, each side of our brain wouldn't influence different emotions.
  • If we didn't have a drive, we wouldn't have a biological motivation to do things.
  • If we didn't have Locus of control, one would have a sense of where his or her life influences came from.
  • If we didn't have the polygraph then our government would have an extremely high risk of corruption from the inside. By also having the Polygraph scientists have the chance to learn more about humans physical arousal in stressful situations.
  • If we didn't have internal locus of control, our lives would be completely controlled by external forces.
  • If we didn't have intrinsic motivation, people would all be very lazy.
  • If we didn't have avoidance-avoidance conflict, we wouldn't be able to tell if a given situation was bad, such as if you had the choice to either be shot or stabbed.
  • If we didn't have display rules, the ways of displaying emotion would be the same all over the world.
  • If we didn't have individualism, then our country and Europe would have a collectivist society like Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America.
  • If we didn't have drive, people would most likely starve to death.
  • If we didn't have Two Factor Theory, you would know the exact and true reason why you have that certain emotion occur.
  • If we didn't have Intrinsic motivation, everything you do would be for a reward.
  • If we didn't have any motives we would only satisfy biological needs.
  • If we didn't have the ability of emotional intelligence we would not be able to contain or control our emotions.
  • If we didn't have an external Locus of Control we would always take responsibility for our mistakes.
  • If we didn't have overjustification popular bands would stay together longer because they would still enjoy making money from their music.
  • If we didn't have motivation the world would be so boring and people would not want to do anything.
  • If we didn't have emotion everybody would be like robots.
  • If we didn't have posttraumatic stress disorder then we would never remember anything bad that happen to us later.
  • If we didn't have traumatic stressor then we would never experience fear when there is threat to our own physical safety.
  • If we didn't have stress then we would never worry about anything.
  • If we didn't have individualism then we wouldn't be recognized for our own personal achievement.
  • if we didn't have drive we wouldn't get anything done.
  • if we didn't have emotion we would all be boring and lonely.

Chapter 9: Psychological Development

  • If we didn't have the zone of proximal development, then children would learn something once and be able to do what they learned without any outside help.
  • If we didn't have the sensorimotor stage, then young kids would have to be taught how to cry when they are hungry; they would most likely not receive the nutrition they need.
  • If we didn't have developmental psychology then we would never be able to change our minds about what we want to be when we grow up.
  • If humans did not have attachment, we would be much worse at surviving infancy because ancient human adults would have been less willing to care for their newborns.
  • If we didn't have mental representation we would always have to see things in person to be able to recognize them.
  • If we didn't have irreversibility we would never be able to work backwards to solve problems.
  • If we didn't have assimilation or accommodation, then our minds would be overwhelmed by all the new information that we are constantly absorbing and learning.
  • If we didn't have a formal operational stage, then we would never be able to form abstract thoughts.
  • If we didn't have animistic thinking then we would not be able to give innate objects/figures their own life and mental processes.
  • If we didn't have temperament then our personality would not be innate.
  • If we didn't have theory of mind we would think that everyone thinks the same way as our self.
  • If we didn't have schema we would not see the relation between many items.
  • If we didn't have centration we could focus on more then one thing at a time and children would be able to think abstractly at a younger age.
  • If we didn't have conservation we wouldn't realize two object as the same if it changed position, location, or size.
  • If we didn't have developmental skills then as children we would grow older physically but our brain will stay the same as an infants because it has not developed to its full capacity.
  • If we didn't have formal operational stage then we wouldn't be able to have abstract thoughts about anything.
  • If we didn't have attachment then we wouldn't be able to connect with people.
  • If we didn't have generativity then we would all endure midlife crises and wallow because we are no longer growing as people or as productive members of society.
  • If we didn't have the ability to overcome trust vs. mistrust of Erikson's stages of psychosocial development, we would never be able to trust others and move on to the next stages involved in evolving into an independent person who can make relationships, be confidents, and etc...
  • If we didn't have accommodation, we may mix up ideas of schemas we have often and misinterpret many things in the world around us. For example: Schemas of a beach including hot, sand, sunny...then seeing a desert and being able to tell the difference and make a separate schema for deserts even though they have similarities to beaches.
  • If we didn't have theory of mind, we would not be able to understand that everyone has their own thoughts, beliefs, and feelings, that differ from our own.
  • If we didn't develop Autonomy we would never learn how to do things for our selves, such as buttoning up your own coat.
  • If we didn't have the Grasp Reflex, we would lack a skill necessary to survive.
  • If we didn't have egocentrism then we could realize at a young age that other people have thoughts and that other people can be fooled according to the video.
  • If we didn't have Zone of proximal development, we wouldn't be able to understand what a child is capable of doing themselves, or what they need help with.
  • if we didn't have Contact comfort when we were little we would love both parents the same.

Chapter 10: Personality

  • If we didn't have personality, than we would have mental disorders and extreme inconsistencies in personality because personality brings continuity to our behavior.
  • If we didn't have ego, we would never solve problems between our id and superego.
  • If we didn't have Albert Bandura's observational learning, social traits would not exist.
  • If we didn't have central traits, we would have no way of describing someone's personality.
  • If we didn't have superego (according to Freud), we would not have the ability to make morally driven choices, such as telling the truth or returning a lost wallet.
  • If we didn't have identification, sons wouldn't see their fathers as role models, nor would daughters see their mothers as role models. Children wouldn't attempt to match the behaviors or abilities of their parental figures, particularly the parental figure of their same gender.
  • According to Freud, if we didn't have penis envy, girls wouldn't be attracted to males.
  • If we didn't have sublimination, we would have no good way of taking out our emotions.
  • If we didn't have ego defense mechanisms, we would have no way of coping with our emotions.
  • If we didn't have cardinal traits then we wouldn't have any way to define peoples lives.
  • If we didn't have the MBTI test we would have no way of evaluating an individual's personality.
  • If we didn't have introversion or extraversion then we wouldn't know one of our personality type.
  • If we didn't have central traits then we wouldn't have a personality because this is our basis of our personality.
  • If we didn't have observational learning then we wouldn't be able to learn new things by seeing someone else do it.
  • If we didn't have validity then false advertising would be allowed and cause many conflicts.
  • If we didn't have libido we wouldn't have a force that makes us find pleasure.
  • If we didn't have denial then we wouldn't refuse actions of ours that we didn't want people to find out about.
  • If we didn't have oedipus complex then boys would not be attracted to women that resemble their mother in some way.
  • If we didn't have psychic determinism then our actions would not be caused by trauma.
  • If we didn't have displacement we would take our anger out on the person that caused it, not someone else.
  • If we didn't have fully functioning persons we wouldn't be positive and know what reality is.
  • If we didn't have internal locus of control we wouldn't know how to take responsibility or feel bad in certain situations.
  • If we didn't have Projection we wouldn't tell when children develop a crush on someone.
  • If we didn't have bodily-kinesthetic intelligence then it would be very hard to play a sport because we wouldn't know where our body placement is.
  • If we didn't have archetypes, we wouldn't be able to identify basic character types or types of people because, according to Jung, archetypes are the ancient memory images in the collective unconscious that give us the instinct to categorize people into specific groups, such as heroes, villains, wise old men, and mothers. For instance, without archetypes, we wouldn't be able to look at The Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci and identify Jesus as a wise and powerful leader, or Judas (sitting off to the left of Jesus, clutching the bag of 30 pieces of silver) as a trickster, betrayer, and villain, or the rest of the apostles as followers.

Chapter 11:Testing and Individual Differences


  • If we didn't have Self-fulfilling prophecy then our expectations wouldn't not influence other's performances. We wouldn't treat others better because we think that they are better , and we wouldn't treat them worse because we expect them to preform bad anyways.
  • If we didn't have test-retest reliability, we would not be able to see if tests are consistent, eliminating the chance of the test being reliable.
  • If we didn't have objective tests, then the scores of every test would be inconclusive because the results would all be scored based upon personal opinion and not on correct facts or information.
  • If we didn't have bodily-kinsethetic, then surgeons could not operate, because they need to have good control over their hands to accurately preform surgery.
  • If we didn't have fluid intelligence, then we wouldn't be able to solve puzzles or solve calculus problems, because fluid intelligence allows us to view complex relationships and solve problems.
  • If we didn't have eugenics, then World War II might not have occurred because Hitler would never have tried to create the "superior" Aryan race.
  • If we didn't have heritability we would not be able to test the influence of genetics on IQ scores because we could not differentiate scores of individuals of the same environment and therefore be unable to explain discrepancies in different IQ scores of the same group.
  • If we didn't have crystallized intelligence, then we wouldn't be able to use things we learned in the past to solve problems and it would be hard understand knew information.
  • If we didn't have nuture, eveyone's personality and intelligence would be directly related to the way they were raised
  • If we didn't have analytical intelligence, we wouldn't have the ability to measure a person's smarts and their ability to find answers.
  • If we didn't have practical intelligence, we would not know how to act around other people and be able to interact with them.
  • If we didn't have savant sydrome, we would not have seen Forrest Gump play ping pong at such a high level because he wouldn't have had that remarkable talent while not being able to do simple actions such as tie his shoes.
  • If we didn't have the medical model, any individual suffering psychological illness or turmoil due to an imbalance of neurotransmitters would not be treated as effectively as their condition is due to something simply biological that can be addressed through carefully engineered chemical drugs.
  • If we didn't have phobias, survival would have been difficult, as snakes or blood would not have triggered a reaction by the sympathetic nervous system, and early humans would more often find themselves defenseless in dangerous situations.
  • If we didn't have self-fulfilling prophecy, intelligence testing may be considered significantly more accurate. Because if we didn't have this, personal expectations would not influence a person's test scores. For example, if a person believes they have a below average intelligence before taking a test, according to this idea, their results may be skewed because the person may not have tried as hard because of their expectations. For this reason, if this idea did not exist, intelligence testing would gain a bit of credibility.

Chapter 12: Psychological Disorders

  • If we did not have the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders- IV (DSM-IV) the psychological world would not have a common language or definition of the known mental disorders through which to communicate treatments, studies, and understanding.
  • If we didn't have preparedness hypothesis, we would not innately fear things such as fires and snakes, which once threatened our ancestors.
  • If we didn't have antidepressant drugs, we would not be able to cure definitively a patient with biologically-induced depression because this is the only type of therapy specifically designed to remedy the biology of depression.
  • If we didn't have Preparedness Hypothesis there would be a much higher annual death rate for things such as snake deaths per year, bear attacks, and spider fatalities, because people would not have the innate instinct that they would have gained from their ancestors from natural selection to keep away and be afraid of these dangerous animals, unless they already had a traumatic experience with the animal and knew to stay away from it.
  • If we didn't have bipolar disorder then people would not go from a manic state to a depressive state because they would not have these mood swings where you go from being on a buying spree to wanting to be alone and very sad.
  • If we didn't have, chemical imbalances we wouldn't have to worry about certain neurotransmitters being damaged and not carrying out certain duties. For example, the neurotransmitter "serotonin" is one of the seven most important neurotransmitter in our systems. Serotonin regulates "sleep and dreaming, mood, pain, aggression, appetite, and sexual behavior" (pg. 76). Too much serotonin exposed to the brain could cause fatal damage and also can cause mania. Also, low levels of serotonin exposed to the brain could cause depression and other symptoms as well. Between these two episodes it can cause manic depression. If we didn't have chemical imbalances we wouldn't have to worry about these mood disorders.

Chapter 13: Therapies For Psychological Disorders

  • If we didn't have reflection of feeling during therapy sessions the therapist wouldn't be considered as much as an active listener because they aren't giving feedback communication wise (they may still nod and show expression).
  • If we didn't have group therapy, family or couple issues would not be resolved because it is better to have said group therapy in order to create healthy relationships and to create communication skills between the said families and couples.
  • If we didn't have antipsychotic drugs, many schizophrenic mental patients would not receive the proper treatment the need, because these drugs diminish psychotic symptoms- like hallucinations- associated with schizophrenia. However, there would also be much less Tardive dyskinesia; caused from an overdose of these drugs.
  • If we didn't have psychopharmacology, then many mental patients who were treated with drugs, such as antidepressants, stimulants, and mood stabilizers would have to return to mental institutions because their symptoms would return and make it difficult to live a "normal" life with their families and friends. However, since we do have psychopharmacology, drugs have changed peoples' lives and closed down many mental institutions. Taking pills (biomedical approach of therapy) allows depressed, manic, OCD, and even schizophrenic patients to have a chance at a "normal" and "healthy" life.
  • If we didn't have Freudian Psychoanalysis then we would need another way to treat people with OCD because it is a way for the client to remove their underlying problem.
  • If we didn't have aversion therapy, then there would be no way to ensure that people no longer get pleasure from addictive substances because aversion therapy can utilize conditioning to slowly replace a good feeling with a negative physical response, like nausea.

  • If we didnt have biomedical therapy, then there would be no way to control those in need of help with irrational thoughts and behaviors because there would be no resource to the appropriate drugs needed to stimulate their brains correctly.
  • If we didnt have psychiatrists, then people who are schizophrenic would not be treated as effectively because prescribed medicine seems to do the best job controling the hallucinations and bizarre behaviors.
  • If we didnt have Participant Modeling then people would not know the right thing to do because there would be nobody to set an example for them.
  • If we didnt have preparedness hypothesis ,then responding to stimuli that posed a survival threat would be a lot harder and you might not respond in a way that would help you. So if our ancestors had to escape from an animal in the wild and they were good at it, then we would have that innate tendency to be able to escape from a dog.
  • If we didn't have discrimination, it would actually be possible for all people to be equal mainly based on race and gender.

Chapter 14: Social Psychology

  • If we didn't have cognitive dissonance, then our actions would always match our attitudes, which would make our world a more honest place, but perhaps more openly unstable because people would not necessarily be motivated to change.
  • If we didn't have conformity people would be much more original with their thought. The individuality of each person would increase because they wouldn't let the pressure of other group memebers opinions influenc their own.
  • If we didn't have group think then it would be challenging to come to a consensus easily. However a better decision could be made because everyone in the group would suggest their ideas and collaboratively form a decision.

  • If we didn't have Cohesiveness then many groups would break up and Group Polarization would occur in each. Cohesiveness allows a group to stick together and agree on almost everything and work well together.
  • If we didn't have diffusion of responsibility then it would be likely that individuals would help others. Kitty Genovese likely would have been saved because no one would have assumed that "someone else would help her." Instead of waiting for someone else to take action in an ememgency situation, individuals would jump into action.
  • If we didn't have group polarization then there would be very little debate on the best way to handle a situation. In the United States everyone agrees that terrorism is bad and should be apprehended, but there is debate whether to start wars, whether we should detain terrorists in Guatanamo Bay, or commence frequent drone attacks.
  • If we didn't have Bystander Effect, then more people would automatically feel obligated to help someone who is in an emergency situation without having a second thought. Also, it wouldn't take another person to effect their decision, or would you need to have a medical background that would contribute to how you would respond seeing a harmed person.
  • If we didn't have self-serving bias then everyone would take equal blame and responsibility for their actions because no one would feel the need to give themselves all the credit when a group does something good or pass on the blame when a group does something badly.
  • If we didn't have scapegoating then we would not accuse someone for something we did wrong because we would start taking responsiblity for our actions instead of blaming someone else.