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The Science of Psychology
The Biological Perspective
Sensation & Perception
Motivation and Emotion
Testing and Intelligence
Treatment of Psychological Disorders
2013-14 Example Starters
When I was a kid...
In the future...
At a concert...
In a world...
If you were raised by wolves...
At a restaurant...
Basically I got in trouble because...
One does not simply...
If you were alone in the world...
When the zombies come...
When you're driving...
When I have kids...
We could test this out...
If we didn't have this...
In a rap battle...
I could use my knowledge of this to predict that...
While studying for my test...
_______ is related to _______ because...
When you are playing call of duty...
Biology, natural selection, and adaptation
Heightened human abilities
The Ninja and His Nemesis
Nature v Nurture
Gina and Tina: Separated Twins
Gina and Tina, Separated Twins
This story is about two identical twins that were separated at birth by a freak switcharoo. They have been raised in two different families and have now become different in some ways. In other ways they've stayed exactly the same. This is a story of nature vs. nurture. All of the Gina and Tina examples should be made with nature and nurture in mind. When reading terms in the books ask yourself the question "Could this be an innate thing that is caused by genetics or could it be caused by the experiences and environment that the twins were raised in?" Their families are different but their genetics are the same.
For example: "Gina was raised in a very quiet household where there was no loud music, noise or yelling. Tina's family however lived by the train tracks and likes to blast loud music and yell across the house every day. Because of this happening over time
worked it's magic and Gina's
for sounds is now much lower than Tina's."
Please be sure to fill in the backstory and try to keep it coherent throughout any new examples being added.
See the story version
Gina and Tina were identical twins born into a wealthy Italian family with a high reputation. During their mother's pregnancy, the doctor noticed a strange genetic makeup of the unborn twins. Not knowing the future results of the children's strange
, the doctor forewarned the expecting parents of the possibility of
, which they were shocked to hear. Their family had always had perfect
, resulting in a long line of perfect
, perfect coordination, and perfect
, among other things. Not wanting to risk losing their "perfect" status, they decided to give up their children for adoption after the pregnancy reached full term. Unfortunately, no single family was willing to adopt both the baby girls, so the children were separated at birth.
Gina was raised in a very quiet household where there was no loud music, noise, or yelling. However, Tina's family lived by the train tracks, enjoyed blasting loud music, and yelling across the house every day. As a result of their different environments and
for sound is now much lower than Tina's.
Gina was raised by authoritarian parents. They were always yelling and criticizing her every move. They even made small decisions for her, like what clothes she was to wear and what to have on her burrito in a local fast food restaurant. Therefore, she lacks the self esteem and ability to make good choices like Tina, who was raised by authoritative parents. Tina's parents set boundaries for her and occasionally allowed her to make her own decisions (like what to have on her burrito at a local fast food restaurant) when they felt she was mature and wise enough to do so. Therefore, Tina has more confidence and assurance in her decisions and is less troubled (see
Gina was raised in a dark city, where she spent most of her time indoors, and where there was little sunlight, if any at all. Tina was raised in a spacious house with many windows in an extremely sunny city, spending a majority of her time outdoors. Because of these differences in environment, not only is Gina's
for light much lower than Tina's, but Gina developed
due to the lack of vibrant colors exposed to her
. This caused them to become inactive, and allow extra strength to develop in her
Gina and Tina perceive things differently due to
. Gina's family always made a big deal about holidays and birthdays. Holidays and birthdays were always lively family events consisting of lots of music and food. Tina, on the other hand, had neglectful parents. They often forgot her birthday, and put little emphasis on holidays. Tina spent most of her time with her friends at rock concerts, and was part of an all-girl band with her three best friends. When Gina perceives music, she associates it with meaningful holidays, birthdays, and family gatherings because of her experiences. When Tina perceives music, she associates it with rock and roll and bands -not birthdays and holidays- because of her experiences.
Gina and Tina live in two different environments. In Gina's household, she lives with her mother, father, and six-month-old baby sister. While in Tina's household, it's just she and her mother. Gina must help out at night when the baby is crying, which seriously cuts into the amount of hours Gina gets to sleep at night. Therefore, Gina frequently experiences
the next day, and as a result falls asleep during her classes at school. On the other hand, Tina is not disturbed during the night, and so if she goes to bed at a good time, she will have enough rest to get her through the next day's classes without falling asleep.
Gina was taken to Alaska to be raised, while Tina was raised in Florida. Tina spent all her time at the beach, and was constantly exposed to bright sunlight. Gina, on the other hand, lived in a dark town with little sunlight, especially in the winter. Gina was found to be much better at detecting dim lights, since that's what she is used to, and has a lower
for lights than Tina does.
Gina lives in China, while her twin, Tina, lives in America. One day, Gina calls Tina at 4 pm in China just to talk. Tina wakes up in frustration as she picks up the phone to yell at her sister. In America, the time is really 4 am. Gina and Tina's
are opposite of each other, so while Gina is fully awake and going about her day, Tina is still sleeping.
Gina's parents believe that caffeine is bad for their child so they hardly ever allow her to have it. Tina's family, on the other hand, loves soda and coffee, and Tina has caffeinated drinks all this time. Now it takes a lot of caffeine for Tina to feel more alert, but Gina feels very awake with hardly any. This is because Tina's level of
for the drug caffeine is so much higher than Gina's, due to her greater exposure to it.
Gina was raised in a family of smokers and started smoking cigarettes as well. Tina, however, was raised by a family of doctors.They did not smoke or have any family history of effects from smoking. Tina eventually became a psychologist and a world-renowned hypnotist. One day, Gina grew tired of smoking and spending all her money on cigarettes, so she decided to call Tina the Hypnotist for help. Gina was scared of experiencing
from the nicotine in the cigarettes and asked Tina to hypnotize her and help her stop smoking. With the help of hypnosis, Gina was able to quit smoking and focus on her health. Through
, Tina was able to suggest to Gina that smoking was harming her and that she needed to stop. In her hypnotic state, Gina was highly suggestible and was able to take Tina's remarks to heart.
Their entire lives, Tina's family lived in the city by train tracks, and Gina's family lived in the quiet, peaceful countryside. Tina has no problem sleeping through the night with the roaring sounds of train tracks passing by her window. However, when Gina was visiting Tina, Gina got no sleep at all. The bright city lights and passing trains kept Gina up all night, while Tina slept soundly. After living in the city for her whole life, Tina isn't bothered at all by the train tracks and city nightlife. Tina was used to the city, just like Gina was used to the quiet countryside. This is an example of
When Gina was in first grade, her teacher would reward students by giving them gold stars to put on a board by their name (
). By using the
fixed ratio schedule
, the teacher set it up in a way that if you had five stars by the end of a week, then you could hand the stars back in for a special prize (
). This urged Gina to behave well. While when Tina was in first grade, her teacher did not give stars for reward, she merely praised her and smiled a lot (
). Tina was more likely than Gina to misbehave because the reward was not as appealing.
Gina grew up with a family living in the United States (speaking English), while Tina grew up in Spain (speaking Spanish). Tina enrolled in an English class at school, and had difficulty learning the rules of pluralizing in English. Because many words become plural when an -s or -es ending is added, Tina gets confused and tends to apply this rule to nouns that don't follow the -s or -es rule. For example, she refers to her feet as "foots" when speaking English, even though "foot" is an irregular noun, and its plural, strange as it seems to Tina, is "feet." Tina's application of pluralization rules to irregular nouns that are exceptions is an example of
Gina and Tina both have brown, curly hair and blue eyes. However, Gina was raised by normal parents whereas Tina was raised by a mad scientist who needed a test subject. Tina was
to cry when she heard the word "ketchup". When someone asks Gina if she would like some ketchup with her fries, she does not burst into hysterics like her sister Tina.
Gina and Tina are both taken to America, but Gina is raised by an Italian family, and Tina by an American family. Gina's
(language acquisition device) allows her to learn both Italian and English. Despite the fact that she's been exposed to Italian and has a general knowledge of the language, she must still learn the grammar rules and vocabulary. Meanwhile, Tina learned English using, and still had to learn the grammar rules and vocabulary for English.
Gina and Tina both participated in the
, in which a child is given the option to eat one marshmallow right away, or wait and end up with two to eat later. Gina, who has a open family who healthily display their emotions, displayed more
because she waited, but Tina has less; her family scarcely talk and she is very shy, and ate the one marshmallow right away.
As they grew up and went to school, Gina did well in school because she wanted to learn new things, have the feeling of a job well done, and getting good grades for her own sake (
), but throughout her childhood, Tina was given $10 for every A she received (
), and now she only does well in school because she wants to receive money (
Gina and Tina both have the same
for food and water when they are hungry and thirsty; however, through the cognitive theory of motivation, Gina and Tina take different approaches to their lives. Gina and Tina are both in college. Gina has an internal
locus of control
(due to her experience ), and knows that staying in and studying on Saturday night, rather than partying with her friends will get her a good grade on her test. Tina has an external
locus of control
(due to her experience) and believes that no amount of studying for her test will help because her professor will simply give the grade he wants to give, so she goes out on Saturday night to party with her friends rather than studying.
Gina and Tina grew up in different societies. Gina grew up in America, where
is highly emphasized, and she is more self-reliant and individual as a result. Tina grew up in Japan where
is more emphasized and she is more focused on bringing honor to her family or a group rather than to herself.
Gina and Tina had the same innate
when faced with a
; however, since they both grew up in different homes they had learned different ways to react to
. Gina had learned to yell, cry, and breakdown whereas Tina had learned to cope and push her way through knowing that things would work out in the end. When faced with a math midterm, Gina was so nervous and confused by the problems that she began to cry in the middle of the test. Her inability to cope with the
caused her to fail the midterm. Tina, though also confused by some of the problems, coped because she had learned that the midterm was just something she had to do. She received a B.
Gina grew up in a home where she was encouraged to try her best, and her parents read to her every night as a child. Tina, however, had horrible parents who neglected her and called her dumb. When Gina started school she excelled and was encouraged and praised by her teacher. Tina, when she started school, made terrible grades and was made fun of by other students. She fell into a pattern of
, believing that she could never do well in school, and she eventually gave up trying.
Gina grew up in a supportive home, with kind parents who encouraged her to do well in school; she got good grades, and found a well-paying, low-stress job. Because of this, she had a relatively low level of
. Tina, however, grew up in an abusive home, did poorly in school as a result, and ended up with a low-paying, high-stress job. Her boss always yells at her, and her co-workers gossip about her. Because of this, Tina's stress level is extremely high. Gina, with her low stress level, is in very good health; however, Tina, with her high stress level, is very unhealthy and is often sick.
Later in life, Gina and Tina finally reconnected and realized they had several strange similarities. They could both balance pencils on their noses, had smiley face tattoos, and had shown an interest in jewelry-making. Convinced that it had to be based on their genes, they had a conversation with their Uncle Georgio, who happened to be a Psychology professor. He told them that according to
it wasn't just their genes that caused the similarities. Genes could play a role; however both heredity and the environment had worked together to generate their behavior and mental processes throughout their lives, which meant that many of their similarities could also be coincidences.
Gina and Tina were reunited recently. They found they had many things in common including the names of their boyfriends, the fact that they both had bangs, and they were both majoring in history and planning to become high school history teachers. While the shape of their face causing them to look good with bangs is influenced by biology, they also have been encouraged by their environment to get such a hair cut, as it will compliment their face and it's in style. They are both majoring in history and planning to become teachers because they have a biologically rooted intelligence, but their environments have encouraged them to try hard in school. They are similar because of
, not just due to
5 years from now Gina and Tina will both be alcoholics. Tina will end up in rehab because her mother will force her there, and eventually she will become sober and stay that way for the rest of her life. However Gina will continue to be an alcoholic because her family is mostly
and she continues to hang out with her "bad-influence" friends who won't stage an intervention for her. This is an example of
(their genetics) made them prone to becoming alcoholics, but
(Tina's mother helping her get over her addiction, and peer pressure from Gina's friends causing her to stay an alcoholic) allowed for variation in the outcome of their addiction.
On the way home from the hospital a few months after a premature birth, Tina and Gina were riding in the flatbed of their alcoholic mother's truck, when Gina fell out of the flatbed and into the heroic arms of Christian missionaries. Over the years, Tina was raised by her neglectful mother in their filthy city home, where alcohol was readily accessible. Gina, however, was in a much more nurturing environment and attended great schools. She traveled the world with her Christian parents, having a greater appreciation for faith and redemption. One day when they were both 35, Tina enrolled in AA, and was assigned a mentor: her long lost twin Gina! Reunited at last, the twins discovered their remarkable similarities of a preference for coffee and being naturally adapt at drawing, aspects of
. But they discovered several differences as well, caused by
. Tina was significantly shorter than Gina because of the years of abuse to her body, while Gina's shiny, healthy hair was supplemented by her constant supply of expensive Godly-gal shampoo.
Gina, growing up in an average family with diverse schooling, is able to achieve and pass the
of her cognition development, while Tina was very sheltered with extreme opinions in all subjects; therefore, Tina was not able to develop to the
concrete operational stage
and never surpassed the
stage in preoperational development.
Gina and Tina were both born with a shy
; however, Tina's parents quickly recognized this disposition, encouraging her to interact with others. Gina's parents did not recognize her shy
,and through their
parenting style let Gina grow up as an insecure child.
Gina was brought up in a pretty sheltered household, where her adoptive parents taught her to always use good manners and common sense. They allowed themselves to occasionally have a glass of wine among friends and family, but they were by no means heavy drinkers. Oppositely, Tina was adopted by a couple who was having difficulty conceiving a child of their own due to their alcoholism. Since Tina was always around when her parents were having parties, laughing as they drank alcohol with their friends, she learned that it's okay to drink heavily, because it makes social gatherings a lot more fun. After Gina and Tina got married, they later both found out that they were expecting twins. Gina immediately stopped drinking, and followed a strict diet and exercise regimen to ensure that her babies were born as healthy as possible. Tina, however, continued to drink throughout her pregnancy, because she heard that drinking on special occasions would be harmless.
comes into play when we take into account how the forces of
influence each other in this case.
: Gina and Tina are
, which means that they share the exact same genes. Their birth parents were both carriers of the twin gene, so they were able to pass it on to them, which is why both Gina and Tina conceived twins.
: Gina grew up in an environment where alcohol was not the main source of fun, whereas Tina grew up in an environment where it was. As a result, Tina thought it'd be okay to drink a little while pregnant and exposed her babies to
, which caused them to be born prematurely with mental handicaps. On the other hand, Gina's pregnancy went smoothly and reached full term, so she gave birth to two healthy babies.
Gina grew up in a wealthy family, while Tina grew up in a poor family. Gina and Tina are both genetically programmed to be the same height due to
(being identical twins, with identical genotypes), but, because Tina was malnourished, she ended up at a shorter adult height than Gina did. (This was due to
Gina and Tina both have faces that look best with bangs due to their face shapes and facial features.
accounts for what their faces look like, while
(most likely in the form of encouragement from family and friends and based on what hair styles are in style) may account for their chosen haircuts.
Gina grew up in a household with parents who were
while Tina grew up in a household where her parents were
. Gina is a very insecure child, having grown up with parents who constantly yelled and criticized her, as well as told her what to do all the time. While Tina is a very confident and is able to make decisions on her own, but with guidance from her parents. But, both Gina and Tina have brown hair and dark brown eyes, standing at 5 ft 3. Although they are identical twins, environment plays a huge role in their
Gina grew up in a household where he parents enjoyed helping others and volunteering, while Tina grew up in an abusive household where her parents yelled at her a lot. As a result, Gina deals with stress through
where she helps others who are less fortunate, while Tina deals with stress through
where she bullies and yells at others. While their genes are the same through
and the ways they deal with stress differently due to
Gina was raised in a rich household where her family didn't spend much time together, as they were often too busy, and she was left alone in the household with her nanny and housekeepers. Tina grew up in a household where her family spent a lot of time together. As a result Gina has an
personality where she spends most of her time studying alone in the library during lunch, and Tina has an
personality where she spends most of her time talking with her friends during lunch. While they have the same genes (
), they have different personalities due to how they were raised (
Gina was often encouraged by her parents to do well in in school, thus Gina often gets straight As and does very well in school. Although, Tina grew up in an environment where her parents didn't encourage her to do well in school, thus Tina doesn't really care and gets bad grades in school. One day, both Gina and Tina got B's on a test. Because of the
, that might perceive the situation differently. Gina who normally gets gets As would feel disappointed, while Tina who normally doesn't do well would feel ecstatic. While they have the same genes (
), their environment of how they were raised has caused them to have different outcomes in the same situation (
Gina grew up in a household with parents who pursued careers in the medical field, while Tina was raise in a run-down neighborhood. Gina and Tina both have the
of 16, but when they both took the IQ test, Gina had a
of 20, while Tina had a
Even though Gina and Tina both have the
, the psychotic disorder is only present in Tina due to the abuse she suffered as a small child, and she drank and smoked heavily throughout her teenage and young adult years.
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