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The Science of Psychology
The Biological Perspective
Sensation & Perception
Motivation and Emotion
Testing and Intelligence
Treatment of Psychological Disorders
2013-14 Example Starters
When I was a kid...
In the future...
At a concert...
In a world...
If you were raised by wolves...
At a restaurant...
Basically I got in trouble because...
One does not simply...
If you were alone in the world...
When the zombies come...
When you're driving...
When I have kids...
We could test this out...
If we didn't have this...
In a rap battle...
I could use my knowledge of this to predict that...
While studying for my test...
_______ is related to _______ because...
When you are playing call of duty...
Biology, natural selection, and adaptation
Heightened human abilities
The Ninja and His Nemesis
Nature v Nurture
Gina and Tina: Separated Twins
The researcher allowing his or her expectations to affect the outcome of a study; or, in memory, a tendency to distort recalled events to make them fit one's expectations
Allowing your assumptions/forecasts of how you think an experiment should turn out influence or alter the results.
If you think something is going to happen, you're going to expect the results to be what you think.
You're biased because you remember things the way you would've expected them to be, which make your memories false.
What you expect affects the end result.
Examples of Expectancy Bias
When you perform an experiment and get outrageous data, you assume you must have made a mistake and don't take the data into consideration, although it may very well be valid.
Trying to fix something and putting the parts in the wrong place and being convinced that it was the correct and only way to make it work again.
Your sister "never does anything wrong", so when your mom sees the broken lamp, she automatically assumes it was you and grounds you, when it was really your sister.
You predicted the Saints would beat the Seahawks. Even though the game was an upset, later on, you may incorrectly recall that the Saints won because this outcome fits your expectations.
Taking a test and expecting to pass. You fail the test and insist the wrong answers are actually correct.
Being told a story of your childhood over and over again, you might think you remember it when you really don't: you just think you do because of what your parents have told you.
Expectancy bias is what sometimes makes
Expectancy bias often creates a fault in your
Expectancy bias can change the outcome of an experiment because the results are the effect of the experimenter changing results based on what they think is supposed to happen.
there was a intresting expirement done about Marriage (Schacter, 1999; Spiro, 1980), the psychologist wanted to use Expectancy bias to see how the results of two different stories would come back in the memory retrival.There were two groups of people for this expirement with one group that read bob and margie wanted kids together and got married together, but the other group read that Margie was horrified that bob didnt want kids and they split up. the group that had read about margie being thrilled about bob wanting kids were then told that the couple had split, they incorrectly recalled incedents in the story like," they disagreed having children".so after doing this expirement it was noticed that people with pre-existing knowledge have a better influence in memory retrival but only when the conclusion of the story was interuppted with different expections.
testified before Kenneth, W. P. C. (2002). The Seven Sins of Memory: Insights from Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience. Foundations in Social Neuroscience, 113.
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