2. James is in a driver’s education course preparing to take his driving test. The course includes both book work and driving on the road to prepare students for a written test and a road test.

(a) Describe how each of the following might influence his ability to drive a car during the road test. Definitions without application do not score.
Cognitive map
Cerebellum
Observational learning
Human factors

(b) Describe how each of the following are related to the results of the written test. Definitions without application do not score.
• Reticular formation
Predictive validity
Semantic memory


[collaboratively answer the essay here... use the discussion to discuss the possible answers]

If James has a cognitive map of the road, then it would be more beneficial for him because he will be able to use the visual map that he has to help him navigate his way through the course, by knowing when to make appropriate turns, turning signals, and head checks. But James can also have a cognitive map of the interior of the car, where certain objects or functions are. With having a cognitive map of the inside of the car, James will feel much more comfortable in his driving test than if he is using a strange car the MVA has provided for him.

The cerebellum would greatly influence James driving because cerebellum controls coordination. Coordination is used in your hands when steering, feet when pushing the pedal and must be coordinated enough to make turns and reverse. If he needed to make a smooth turn, his cerebellum would help him turn the wheel, release the gas pedal and instead push the break pedal slightly at the same time.

James has seen many people drive before so when it's his turn to drive for the first time he'll have an idea on how to drive because of his observational learning. For example; if James were to see a driver that did not stop at stop signs or speed through red lights, James is more likely to imitate the same behavior of a bad driver. If James were to see a good driver who watched for pedestrians, James is more likely to imitate the good drivers behavior. This is due to Observational learning. Since we learn from other people in our life, James probably has watched and learned tha habits of his parents or an older sibling. Chances are James will drive similar to whoever normally drives him.

Since there is a written test that is accompanying the driving test, predictive validity could be possible. Predictive validity is shown when results from a test show a correlation with the performance of a certain task. For example, if he performs well on the written test and the driving test, then predictive validity is displayed in this case.

Semantic memory is memory of concepts and ideas unrelated to experiences such as schoolwork, or the fact that you drive on the right of the road and the fact that you wear your seat belt at all times. Part of a written driving test is multiple choice, much like as in school, so memorization of facts would use semantic memory. A test question could ask when it's okay to park on a curb, or what parallel parking is, so semantic memory - fact and concept/meaning memory, basically memorized things - would be required for a person to answer this question.

James can use his reticular formation in his brain to keep him alert during his written test and keep him from dozing off. Reticular formation directs his attention to important information, so he can focus on the finding the answers of his questions from his studies, observations, and experiences.

A human factor could be Jame's is a midget and can not reach and/or control the steering wheel or other important car functions.